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Artificial Intelligence for Wireless Sensor Networks Enhancement


1. Introduction
Whereas the main objective of Artificial ntellience is to develop systems that emulate the intellectual and interaction abilities of a human bein the Distributed Artificial ntellience pursues the same objective but focusin on human bein societies O’are et al, 2  ­€ A paradim in current use for the development of Distributed Artificial ntellience is based on the notion of multi‚aent systems A multi‚aent system is formed by a number of interactin intellient systems called aents, and can be implemented as a softƒare proram, as a ded‚ icated computer, or as a robot Russell „ …orvin, 2  †€ ntellient aents in a multi‚aent system interact amon each other to orani‡e their structure, assin tasˆs, and interchane ˆnoƒlede
Concepts related to multi‚aent systems, artificial societies, and simulated orani‡ations, cre‚ ate a neƒ and risin paradim in computin ƒhich involves issues as cooperation and compe‚ tition, coordination, collaboration, communication and lanuae protocols, neotiation, con‚ sensus development, conflict detection and resolution, collective intellience activities con‚ ducted by aents e problem resolution, plannin, learnin, and decision maˆin in a dis‚ tributed manner€, conitive multiple intellience activities, social and dynamic structurin, decentrali‡ed administration and control, safety, reliability, and robustness service Šuality parameters€
Distributed intellient sensor netƒorˆs can be seen from the perspective of a system com‚ posed by multiple aents sensor nodes€, ƒith sensors ƒorˆin amon themselves and form‚ in a collective system ƒhich function is to collect data from physical variables of systems ‹hus, sensor netƒorˆs can be seen as multi‚aent systems or as artificial orani‡ed societies that can perceive their environment throuh sensors

Œut, the Šuestion is hoƒ to implement Artificial ntellience mechanisms ƒithin Wireless Žen‚ sor …etƒorˆs WŽ…s€‘ ‹here are tƒo possible approaches to the problem’ accordin to the first approach, desiners have in mind the lobal objective to be accomplished and desin both, the aents and the interaction mechanism of the multi‚aent system n the second approach, the desiner conceives and constructs a set of self‚interested aents ƒhose then evolve and interact in a stable manner, in their structure, throuh evolutionary techniŠues for learnin ‹he same difficulty applies ƒhen ƒorˆin ƒith a WŽ… perspective seen from the

perspective of DAI. Can the principles, algorithms and application of Distributed Artificial Intelligence be used to optimize a network of distributed wireless sensors? Is it possible to implement a solution that enables a sensor network to behave as an intelligent multi-agent sstem? rom a perspective of multi-agents, artificial societies, and simulated organizations, how must a distributed sensor network be installed in an efficient manner and achieve the proposed obectives of taking measures of phsical variables b itself? hat are the union points between Distributed Artificial Intelligence and ireless sensor networks? he fundamental idea is this chapter is to propose a model that enables a highl distributed sensor network to behave intelligentl as a multi-agent sstem.
2. Wireless Sensor Networks
A ensor  etwork ­ € is a sstem that consists of thousands of ver small stations called sensor nodes. he main function of sensor nodes it is to monitor, record and notif a specific condition at various locations to other stations. Also, a   is a group of specialized transducers with a communications infrastructure intended to monitor and record conditions at diverse locations. Commonl monitored parameters are temperature, humidit, pressure, wind direction and speed, illumination intensit, vibration intensit, sound intensit, power-line voltage, chemical concentrations, pollutant levels and vital bod functions.
ensor nodes can be imagined as small computers, e‚tremel basic in terms of their interfaces and their components. Although these devices have a ver little capabilit on their own the have substantial processing capabilities when the are working as an aggregate, ­Cƒ„……†ƒ et al., ‡ˆˆ‰€. †ach node in a sensor network is tpicall eŠuipped with a radio transceiver or other wireless communications device, a small microcontroller, and an energ source, usuall a batter. A sensor node might var in size from that of a shoebo‚ down to the size of a grain of dust ­ƒomer ‹ Œattern, ‡ˆˆ‰€. A sensor network normall constitutes a wireless ad-hoc network, meaning that each sensor supports a multi-hop routing algorithm ­several nodes ma forward data packets to the base station€. It is important to underline that  s are subect to more severe power constraints than ŽDAs, mobile phones, or laptops. he whole network is usuall under the administration of one controller‘ the base station. he main functionalit of the base station is to act as gatewa to another network, and is a powerful data processor and storage center. Advances in microelectronics and wireless communications have made  s the predict panacea for attacking a host of large-scale decision and information processing tasks. he applications for  s are varied, tpicall involving some kind of monitoring, tracking, or controlling. pecific applications include habitat monitoring, obect tracking, nuclear reactor control, fire detection, and traffic monitoring. In a tpical application, a   is scattered in a region where it is meant to collect data through its sensor nodes. A number of  s have been deploed for environmental monitoring ­Davoudani et al., ‡ˆˆ’€. Œan of these have been short lived, often due to the prototpe nature of the proects. ireless sensor networks have been developed for machiner Condition-“ased Œaintenance ­C“Œ€ since the offer significant cost savings and enable new functionalities.
Although a number of new   sstems and technologies have been developed, a number of new problems or challenges are et to be solved or improved on. †‚amples of such problems are optimal routing strategies, lifespan of the  , lifetime of the nodes are often ver limited, reconfigurabilit without redeploment, etc.
inall, since  s become popular there is not a common platform. ome representative designs have broader users and developer communities, such as “erkele Œotes, which was